Washington DC History Resources

Matthew B. Gilmore

What Once Was: Washington’s Lost Month: the 1918-19 Spanish Influenza Epidemic in Washington DC

Washington’s Lost Month: the 1918-19 Spanish Influenza Epidemic in Washington DC


[Frank Huebel] A.A. Hoehling. “The Month Flu Ruled the Capital.” Washington Star August 8, 1976.

A.A. Hoehling. The Great Epidemic. Boston, Little, Brown, 1961.


Jeffery K. Taubenberger and David M. Morens. “1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics.” Emerging Infectious Diseases [serial on the Internet]. 2006 Jan 12(1): 15–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.05-0979

1918 Killer Flu Reconstructed https://www.npr.org/programs/all-things-considered/2005/10/05/12959425/

Allison C. Meier. “1918: The Forgotten Year of Death.” The Order of the Good Death http://www.orderofthegooddeath.com/

John M. Barry.  The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History.

John M. Barry. How the Horrific 1918 Flu Spread Across America.    https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/journal-plague-year-180965222/ Smithsonian Magazine, November 2017.

Alfred W. Crosby. America’s Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918

Gina Kolata Flu: The Story of The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus that Caused It.

Annual Report of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia, year ended June 30, 1919.  Volume III Report of the Health Officer.



INFLUENZA 1918 | Biography: Rupert Blue https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/influenza-rupert-blue/

Elisabeth Stevens. “1918 Flu Killed Millions” Washington Post Oct 24, 1965; M6

Mary S. Hoffschwelle. “Harry Stoll Mustard.” Tennessee Encyclopedia [online] http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/entries/harry-stoll-mustard/

HARRY MUSTARD, PHYSICIAN, 77, DIES: CITY’S HEALTH COMMISSIONER IN 40’S WAS New York Times (1923-Current file); Aug 6, 1966; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times pg. 17

Influenza Epidemic History: Why Was the Spanish Flu So Deadly? http://time.com/3731745/spanish-flu-history/

Rupert Blue, Surgeon-General, United States Public Health Service, Washington, D. C. “Epidemic Influenza and The U. S. Public Health Service.” The Modern Hospital.  December 1918 v. XI, No. 6.

Mystery of 1918 Flu That Killed 50 Million Solved? Children born in the late 1800s lacked exposure to influenza before the deadliest pandemic of the early 20th century hit.

B Y D A N V E R G A N O , N A T I O N A L G E O G R A P H I C P U B L I S H E D A P R I L 2 9 , 2 0 1 4

Marian Moser Jones. “The American Red Cross and Local Response to the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: A Four-City Case Study.” Public Health Reports / 2010 Supplement 3 / Volume 125 pp. 92-104.

John Galvin. “Spanish Flu Pandemic – 1918 – History – Interviews – Aftermath – Worst Disasters.” Popular Mechanics. Jul 30, 2007 https://www.popularmechanics.com/science/environment/a1970/4219884/

Molly Billings, June, 1997 The 1918 Influenza Pandemic. https://virus.stanford.edu/uda/

The Closure of the House Public Galleries During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. October 07, 1918 http://history.house.gov/HistoricalHighlight/Detail/36422?ret=True

Pauline Toole. The Flu Epidemic of 1918 — NYC Department of Records & Information Services March 1, 2018 (/blog/2018/3/1/the-flu-epidemic-of-1918)

Michael E. Ruane. “The flu pandemic that came to Washington in 1918 killed 2,800, sickened many more.” Washington Post October 19, 2014.

Joseph E. Persico. “The Greats Wine Flu Epidemic Of 1918.” American Heritage June 1976  Volume 27, Issue 4 https://www.americanheritage.com/content/greats-wine-flu-epidemic-1918

C.C. Dauer, M.D. “The Pandemic of Influenza in 1918-1919.” US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Public Health Service. National Office of Vital Statistics. 2015. https://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/i/influenza/the-pandemic-of-influenza-in-1918-1919.html

Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats; Knobler SL, Mack A, Mahmoud A, et al., editors. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2005.

University of Michigan Center for the History of Medicine and Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library. “Washington, DC and the 1918-1919 Influenza Epidemic | The American Influenza Epidemic of 1918: A Digital Encyclopedia.” https://www.influenzaarchive.org/cities/city-washingtondc.html#

Ruth Craig. “Why Did the 1918 Flu Kill So Many Otherwise Healthy Young Adults?” The Conversation smithsonian.com, November 10, 2017.

Mark Honigsbaum. “Spanish Influenza Redux: Revisiting the Mother of All Pandemics.” The Lancet v.391, June 23, 2018. 2492-2495.

Nancy Tomes. “Destroyer and Teacher”: Managing the Masses During the 1918—1919 Influenza Pandemic.”  Public Health Reports (1974-), Vol. 125, Supplement 3: The 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic in the United States (APRIL 2010), pp. 48-62. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41435299

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